Killefit consult

consultant sourcing and project management

 SME Interventions Ltd. U.K. –  Experts + Projects S.A. CR

Preparation of the 2012 Swaziland Human Development Report (HDR) on

‘Governance and Inclusive Growth’

Swaziland

Country/ Location of the position Swaziland
Status/Reference FWC
Agency/Donor EU
Experts E1 Senior (at least 10 years of experience)
  E2 Senior (at least 10 years of experience)
  E3 Junior (at least 3 years of experience)
Start + duration of project 27/02/2012 – 27/12/2012
Duration of mission E1 30 working days
  E2 20 working days
  E3 20 working days
Required language Fluency in oral English and excellent writing skills are essential.
Deadline 28.01.12. Recruitment starts immediately upon publication of this vacancy announcement, posts may be filled already before the indicated application deadline.
ToR Please read hereunder
Eligible Nationalities all
Observations Only short listed consultants will be replied to.

Please apply only if you fulfill all requirements for the vacant position

All experts must have at least regional experience

Sending us your application is a commitment and we expect you to be available for the mission you are applying for.

Download EU AID CV template in the 4 main languages  of the EC http://wp.me/p1sHoW-5D
Our web page http://www.killefitconsult.com/beta/

CONTACT

applications@killefitconsult.com

Only short listed consultants will be replied to.

 

If you wish to submit your candidature, please send us:

 

1 – Your up dated and position-adjusted CV in EU AID format, in the language of vacancy and as word.doc detailing qualifications, experience in similar assignments. CVs in other format than EU format will not be evaluated.

2 – The country, no of position/field (s) you will apply for in the subject line of message

3 – Your daily/monthly fee (EUR) without the living allowances.

4 – Your communication details (Mobil, phone, etc.)

5- applicants are encouraged to create consultant profiles in our online registry at: http://www.killefitconsult.com/beta/

 

Suggestions: Please make sure, that the experience requested is also shown “Description” section 14 of your CV. As the selections are very strict and paper based, we request you to prepare your CV in the right format and detail all the relevant experience under the Professional experience table as much as possible. There is no problem if your CV is long, the most important is to prepare so that it describes clearly your experiences relevant to the mission. (Your CV has to sell you!)

Restrictions: In case consultants are short listed, they must be able to provide documentary evidence for educational and professional items in their CVs (copies of diplomas, copies of employers’ reference letters, etc.). Documents those are not available in English have to be accompanied by a faithful translation. This is mandatory requirement for Europe Aid tenders.

DESCRIPTION

 

Profile: Expert 1

Categoy of expert             Senior (at least 10 years of experience)

Duration               30.00 working days

 

Requirements      o Senior experts for the chapters on

(i) The role of the governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis and

(ii) ‘Regulatory environment, private sector employment, and growth’.

 

Education (all) – M.A. in economics, public administration, or related field

 

– Experience ability to use relevant computer packages (proficiency in Microsoft Excel and Word).

– Relevant work experience of at least 10 years in human development, economic policy analysis, or governance.

– Track record in producing high quality policy oriented reports for international institutions.

– Work experience in Southern Africa is an added advantage

– Capacity to deliver output in a timely manner and

 

Language skills — Fluency in oral English and excellent writing skills are essential.       

                              

                              

Profile: Expert 2

Categoy of expert             Senior (at least 10 years of experience)

Duration               20.00 working days

 

Requirements      o Senior experts for the chapters on

(i) The role of the governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis and

(ii) ‘Regulatory environment, private sector employment, and growth’.

 

Education (all) – M.A. in economics, public administration, or related field

 

– Experience ability to use relevant computer packages (proficiency in Microsoft Excel and Word).

– Relevant work experience of at least 10 years in human development, economic policy analysis, or governance.

– Track record in producing high quality policy oriented reports for international institutions.

– Work experience in Southern Africa is an added advantage

– Capacity to deliver output in a timely manner and

 

Language skills — Fluency in oral English and excellent writing skills are essential.

               

                              

Profile: Expert 3

Categoy of expert             Junior (at least 3 years of experience)

Duration               20.00 working days

 

Requirements      o Junior expert for the part on Governance and trade.

Education – M.A. in economics, public administration, or related field

 

Experience – junior expert:

— Relevant work experience of at least 3 years in human development, economic policy analysis, or governance.

— Track record in contributing to high quality policy oriented reports

— Work experience in Southern Africa

— Capacity to deliver output in a timely manner and ability to use relevant computer packages (proficiency in Microsoft Excel and Word).

 

– Language skills — Fluency in oral English and excellent writing skills are essential.

               

EC rules applicable to any EC assignment 

• Working days are from Monday to Friday, if not indicated otherwise in the ToR

• Per diem covers all expenses of the expert (local transport, hotel, meals, telecom,

etc) and it is only paid if the expert stay overnight.

• International travel: the EC only reimburse economy class flight tickets

Terms of reference

 

SPECIFIC TERMS OF REFERENCE

Preparation of the 2012 Swaziland Human Development Report (HDR) on ‘Governance and Inclusive Growth’

FWC BENEFICIARIES 2009 – LOT 11: Macro economy, Statistics, Public Finance Management

EuropeAid/127054/C/SER/multi

 

  1. 1.     BACKGROUND

 

Swaziland has embarked on the preparation of the 2012 Human Development Report on ‘Governance and Inclusive Growth’. The topic reflects the key current and longer-term human development challenges. The report is part of the global effort to advance the human development conceptual framework and apply it to the most pressing challenges while finding innovative and nationally-owned solutions.

 

Currently, Swaziland is going through a severe fiscal crisis. The crisis has interrupted delivery of some key social services and may have exacerbated unemployment and/or reduced household income. The negative impacts of the fiscal crisis on the most vulnerable could thus be substantial. Moreover, the government has accumulated substantial arrears to private sector contractors. Governance, especially weak public finance management and corruption, was the key factor behind the crisis.

 

Taking a longer term view, in Swaziland growth since mid 1990s has been low and the poverty rate (63 percent) remains very high, especially for a middle-income country. Unemployment rate is almost of 30 percent of the labour force and youth unemployment exceeds 50 percent. Bringing the economy on a path of high and inclusive growth – with job creation – is thus a key challenge. To achieve such growth, improvements in governance, especially economic governance, are crucial.

 

The process of preparing the 2012 Swaziland HDR has been launched and is led by the national steering committee comprising representatives of different organizations and sectors. After consultations among members, their organizations and constituencies, the committee has set the topic of the 2012 Report as ‘Governance and Inclusive Economic Growth’. The Report is scheduled for launch in September 2012.

 

 

 

  1. 2.    DESCRIPTION OF THE ASSIGNMENT

 

  • Global objective

 

The main goal of the assignment is to prepare chapters for the 2012 Swaziland Human Development Report (HDR) on ‘Governance and Inclusive Growth’. This will be the fourth HDR on Swaziland.[1] As in other countries, HDRs in Swaziland are prepared periodically to facilitate the country’s human development and track its progress over time. All past Swaziland HDRs were innovative and pushed the frontiers of development thinking.

 

 

  • Specific objective(s)

 

The goal is to undertake policy-oriented research and produce chapters for the 2012 Swaziland Human Development Report on (i) ‘Governance and trade’; (ii) The role of governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis; and (iii) ‘Regulatory environment, private sector employment, and growth’. A related goal is to give a platform for dialogue between business, government, donors and civil society on ways to overcome constraints to improved governance and inclusive growth.

 

 

  • Requested services

 

The experts/consultants are expected to draft (with the exception of the background and the part on FDI (Chapter I)), three (3) chapters according to these terms of reference (TORs) and in consultation with the steering committee. The experts/consultants are expected to exercise objectivity of view in the arguments and conclusions of the report. The Report will highlight best practices of other countries and suggest how they could be adapted to Swaziland’s context.

The preparation adheres to the following six principles: (i) national ownership; (ii) independence of analysis; (iii) quality of analysis; (iv) participatory and inclusive preparation; and (vi) sustained follow up. The chapters to be drafted cover the following topics (list is not exhaustive):

 

 

(i)             Governance and trade

 

In the recently finalised Economic Recovery Strategy for Swaziland, trade has been identified as a key strategic area for growth. Indeed, for a small open economy such as Swaziland — with trade-to-GDP ratio over 160 percent in 2008 — the importance of vibrant and diversified export sector cannot be overemphasized. Besides raising revenues, exports can increase productivity through competition and access to new technologies. However, Swaziland’s exports have been losing competitiveness, as suggested by their declining share in world exports and appreciation of the real exchange rate.[2] Serious ‘behind-the-border’ impediments include weak trade policy; supply-side bottlenecks (inadequate infrastructure in power, ICT); weak business environment and barriers to competition. Reforms of the trade regulatory framework would facilitate trade, by cutting on the number of procedures and reducing scope for corruption at the border. This would also help formalize the substantial informal cross-border trade and reduce job vulnerability of the traders, mostly women without formal higher education.

 

Swaziland’s future prosperity hinges on deeper regional integration. Swaziland needs to focus on developing areas of industrial complementarity and higher value added to raise its capacity to trade regionally on mutually beneficial terms. At the same time, sound governance at the regional level would help address concerns about unequal distribution of net benefits of integration. For example, current integration programs have no compensation mechanisms for lower government revenues due to trade liberalization. However, as the on-going fiscal crisis illustrated, such losses could have dire consequences for a small, trade-dependent economy such as Swaziland. At the national level, social safety nets for those who may lose jobs due to trade liberalization would increase political support for the reforms.[3]

 

(ii)            The role of governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis

 

The ongoing fiscal crisis highlighted the importance of good governance, especially improving public finance management and reducing corruption. It particularly underscored the need to establish medium term fiscal framework and pursue fiscal adjustment, improve revenue mobilization, strengthen public sector transparency and accountability, reduce corruption, and reform the civil service.

 

Many of these objectives are in the PRSAP endorsed by the King in 2008, but the implementation has been lacking. Moreover, the results of the government actions have not been systematically evaluated and monitored. The institutional and statistical basis for results-oriented and evidence-based budgeting is weak, and so is the capacity to mobilize and manage the required external assistance. On the positive side, preparation of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA), which lays out functions and responsibilities of all budgetary institutions in the budget implementation, is a step in the right direction.

 

Government may also like to replace ad-hoc and pro-cyclical expenditure policies that prevailed in the run up to the crisis by a rule-based and counter-cyclical medium term expenditure framework (MTEF). To achieve pro-poor and pro-growth budget, the over-sized wage bill and other inefficient spending would need to be cut. The MTEF could then allow space for social (health, education) and pro-growth (SMMEs, infrastructure, ICT) spending as well as for discretion in case of shocks. Swaziland can draw on good practices with MTEFs in Africa, including in Mozambique, Uganda and Tanzania.

 

Corruption is the main impediment for firms’ in Swaziland, according to the 2011 Global Competitiveness Report.  Corruption is believed to be widespread also in the public sector. Accordingly, Swaziland has been sliding on ‘the corruption perception index’ of the Transparency International – from 72nd out of 180 countries in 2008 to 91st out of 178 in 2010 (after Sri Lanka and before Burkina Faso). Increased transparency and accountability, as well as greater adherence to the rule of law could go a long way in reversing this trend. While establishment of the Anti-corruption Commission is a step in the right direction, the government needs to increase its commitment to combating corruption.

 

The government may wish to leverage e-government for public sector transformation, in particular increased transparency and citizen participation in decision-making at both national and local levels.  Again, Swaziland can draw on good practices of others, including among other middle income countries in the region (e.g., Botswana, Mauritius, and South Africa) or in emerging Europe (e.g., Estonia).

 

(iii) Regulatory environment, private sector employment, and growth

 

In Swaziland, inclusive growth has remained elusive over the past two decades. Growth has been too low to raise productive employment and create decent jobs (e.g., adequately paid, productive and secure). Unemployment and inequality have remained very high and poverty widespread. Against this background, the chapter should address the following bottlenecks that policymakers need to address:

 

  • The emergence of a dynamic private sector and employment hinges critically on an enabling investment climate. However, Swaziland’s business environment is poor and has been sliding on the World Bank’s Doing Business Ranking and more recently also on the Global Competitiveness Index. This rigid environment has hampered incentives for private investment for years;[4]

 

  • In Swaziland, the role of good governance for creating highly productive private sector cannot be overemphasized. As documented in the African Competitiveness Report 2011 and the Global Competitiveness Report 2011/2012, private sector CEOs viewed inefficient government bureaucracy and corruption as two top constraints to their activities in Swaziland. In this area, Swaziland can draw on experiences of other African countries, in particular Botswana, Mauritius, and Rwanda, who made commendable strides in improving their business environments;

 

  • Swaziland’s productive base is fairly diversified relative to other SSA countries. However, in recent years the country has been lagging in structural reforms and transformation from low productive activities to more productive ones;

 

  • With high public sector employment and underdeveloped private sector, Swaziland needs to strengthen the institutional and input prerequisites for development of a strong and competitive private-sector. This also requires policies that open up opportunities for productive entrepreneurship and employment for all members of society;

 

  • At more than 60 percent of the relevant labor force in 2010, the youth (ages 15-24) unemployment is alarmingly high, in fact one of the highest in the world among middle income countries. Besides the loss of human capital and productive capacity, the youth unemployment has negative social implication and creates political tensions;

 

  • Female unemployment is also disproportionately high — 31.3 percent in 2010, relative to 25.7 percent for males. This trend for unemployment rate for males and females has not changed for many years and needs to be addressed going forward;

 

  • Formal social safety nets for the vulnerable have been for the most part missing, while active labor market policies focusing on human capital accumulation (retraining, job search skills, etc) still need to be developed.

 

Further structure of the chapters is in Annex I. The draft chapters will be presented at a workshop to stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, the private sector, civil society) in March 2012. They will undergo external review by members from the private sector, academia, civil society and policymakers in Swaziland and abroad. Comments from the workshop and reviewers will be addressed before the report is finalised.

 

 

  • Required outputs

 

  • An inception report of about 5-10 pages long within 5 working days of the start of the assignment.

 

  • First drafts of the chapters to be presented at the workshop (to a wide range of representatives of the society, namely policy makers, the private sector, civil society, and academia) around 10 working days before the workshop. The comments from the workshop will be included the in revised drafts (below).

 

  • The final NHDR draft, including 3-page summary, with each chapter about 30 pages long (single space). Structure and issues addressed would be as above and in and Annex 1. The report should incorporate comments from the above workshop.

 

In addition, the consultants are required to do the following:

(i)             compilation of background material, including datasets;

(ii)    Review and update data and information in the chapter as needed in early May 2012, using the latest information from the Government and others to enhance the quality of the report.

(iii)            Provide comments on the final draft of the entire report.

(iv)            arrange for printing of the report

(v)            team leader would participate in the launch of the report

 

  1. 3.    EXPERTS PROFILE  or  EXPERTISE REQUIRED

 

  • Two (2) senior experts – one (team leader) for about 30 working days and the other for 20 working days.
  • One (1) junior expert for 20 working days.

 

  • Profile per expert or expertise required:

 

  • Senior experts for the chapters on (i) The role of the governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis and (ii) ‘Regulatory environment, private sector employment, and growth’.
  • Junior expert for the part on Governance and trade.

 

Education (all) – M.A. in economics, public administration, or related field

 

– Experience – senior experts:

– Relevant work experience of at least 10 years in human development, economic policy analysis, or governance.

– Track record in producing high quality policy oriented reports for international institutions.

– Work experience in Southern Africa is an added advantage

– Capacity to deliver output in a timely manner and ability to use relevant computer packages (proficiency in Microsoft Excel and Word).

 

Experience – junior expert:

— Relevant work experience of at least 3 years in human development, economic policy analysis, or governance.

— Track record in contributing to high quality policy oriented reports

— Work experience in Southern Africa

— Capacity to deliver output in a timely manner and ability to use relevant computer packages (proficiency in Microsoft Excel and Word).

 

– Language skills — Fluency in oral English and excellent writing skills are essential.

 

Minimum required skills must be clearly identified.

 

  1. 4.    LOCATION AND DURATION

 

  • Starting period : End February 2012
  • Foreseen finishing period or duration: November 2012
  • Location(s) of assignment:

The assignment will take place in Mbabane, Swaziland. Incorporation of comments into the chapters can be performed at home-base of the consultant.

 

  1. 5.    REPORTING

 

  • Content — Please see Annex I.

 

  • Language —  English

 

  • Submission/comments timing

 

Table 1. Time Line (As of January 2012)

 

Projected time frame Tasks
End February 2012 Start of the assignment
Mid-March 2012 First drafts of the chapters provided
End-March  2012 Workshop on the first drafts
April 2012 Comments from the workshop incorporated
1st half of May 2012 Peer review of the report
2nd half of May 2012 Comments from the peer review incorporated, report finalised
June –July 2012 Report production (copyediting, graphic design, printing)
September 2012 Official launch in Mbabane

 

 

  • Number of report(s) copies – 3 chapters on: (i) ‘Governance and trade’; (ii) The role of governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis; and (iii) ‘Regulatory environment, private sector employment, and growth’ for circulation at the workshop.
    • 150 copies of the final report are to be available at the launch for distribution

 

 

6.   ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION:

 

Office space where necessary will be provided by UNDP.

 

The cost of running the stakeholder workshop and the launch of the report are to be covered by the consultant and therefore to be provided for in the budget. The stakeholder workshop would be for about 30 participants, and the launch will be attended by about 60 people. Visibility for and at the launch is to be taken into account.

 

Provision has been made for four (4) return air tickets. The team leader will be expected to be present at the launch for any further questions/comments raised at the launch.

 

Budget provision is to be made for report production as noted in the time-line table above.

ANNEX I – Structure of the Chapters

 

  1. 1.     Governance and Trade 

 

The draft chapter — about 20-25 pages long (single spaced, including graphs and tables) — would take approximately the following structure.

 

  • The overview will introduce and highlight the key issues addressed in the chapter.

 

  • Trade characteristics and patterns This section will describe Swaziland’ trade patterns over time – both in terms of goods/services and trading partners – as well as the country’s revealed comparative advantage. It will discuss how diversified these trade patterns are, how vulnerable is Swaziland to term-of-trade shocks. Drawing on the cluster analysis, the section will suggest what high value sectors may be supported in order to diversify the economy. Example of Mauritius, a small open economy which undertook successful diversification, may be useful in this regard.

 

  • Barriers at the border and behind the border According to the WB’s Doing Business 2011, barriers at the border include burdensome documentation requirements, inefficient port operations, and inadequate transport infrastructure, which generate unnecessary costs and delays. Inefficient custom administration leads to lengthy customs procedures and acts as a non-tariff barrier.[5] Measures to explore include ‘one stop border posts’, extending border hours, sharing data to cut on time length of the clearance. Reforms of the trade regulatory framework would reduce scope for corruption at the border by cutting on the number of procedures. The section would explore these and other measures and good practices. From human development point of view, such measures would also help formalize the substantial informal cross-border trade and reduce job vulnerability of the traders, mostly women without formal higher education.

 

  • Trade in services – This section would examine the current state and the trend in trade in services, including obstacles and revealed comparative advantages. The section would also discuss the state and challenges for developing the tourism sector.

 

  • Impediments to regional trade to be explored include infrastructure (ICT), differences in trading procedures, the lack of product complementarity, labour cost, and the lack of trade facilitation instruments, including trade finance, and others. The section would also examine to what degree membership in multiple regional trade agreements pauses a challenge. While Swaziland’s main trading partner continues to be South Africa, over the medium term Swaziland could explore potential economic ties with countries other than SADC, for example with the fast growing members of the EAC or BRICs. Hence policies that would facilitate geographical diversification into the rest of Africa (beyond South Africa) and emerging markets would be discussed here.

 

Data sources and methodology —  The study will draw on official country data bases and discussions with stakeholders; the various sectoral reports, UN’s data bases (UNCTAD), WTO database; publications such as the Human Development Report; the African Economic Outlook; the Africa Competitiveness Report. Other key data sources are: the World Bank’s Doing Business reports and Investment Climate Assessment reports. The chapter will use the human development framework and the rights-based approach.

 

  1. 2.     The role of governance in preventing the future fiscal crisis

 

  • The overview — will provide background on the prevailing (dual) system of governance in Swaziland and highlight the key issues. While the system helps maintain national cohesion, the two parallel systems have unclear lines between them. The rest of the chapter will focus on the following elements of good governance: accountability, transparency and combating corruption.

 

  • Public Financial Management and Fiscal Rules In recent years, public expenditures markedly exceeded revenues, revealing the inability of the government to maintain fiscal discipline. With permanently lower SACU revenues, introduction and adherence to well-designed medium term expenditure framework (as stipulated in the fiscal adjustment road map — FAR) is a priority. Moreover, introduction of fiscal rules – possibly formalized through the Fiscal Responsibility Act – such as balancing budget over the medium term, should be also explored. 

 

  • Public Sector Management — Civil Service Reform and Public Enterprise Reform –Reforming civil service –reducing wage bill, improving incentives – is high on policy agenda. The section will discuss trade-offs between fast downsizing and quality of public service delivery and experiences of countries with successful civil service reforms. The chapter will also discuss need to restructure or privatize some public enterprises and refocus them on their core activity.

 

  • Combating CorruptionCorruption perceptions in Swaziland have increased, and the country has been sliding on international rankings. Periodically, MoF mentions that up to E80 million may be misappropriated each month in the public service. The section will discuss the structures, institutions as well as training needed to change these practices and mindsets, reflecting both achievements (procurement bill, establishing ACC, etc.) and challenges.

 

  • Local Governance – Decentralization While decentralization is in the National Development Strategy and Swaziland has developed decentralization policy, implementation has been lagging. The Tinkhundla remains at the center of decentralization. Devolution of funds and administrative powers to local communities to ensure efficient service delivery has not so far materialized.

 

  • Role of the NGOs and International Actors – The section will examine challenges of the NGOs to reflect views of the society, including the lack of coherent legal and policy framework. It will also analyze the role of external actors (IOs, regional bodies) in encouraging good governance.

 

  • E-governance This chapter will provide brief info on the status of internet literacy and digital divide in Swaziland. It will also discuss the recent plans to introduce e-government, summarize experiences of other countries, and highlight main obstacles (monopoly in telecom sector, etc.)

 

Methodology – Beyond considerations of accountability, transparency, etc., the chapter will take the rights-based approach, with economic, social and political rights of individuals are central to governance.

 

  1. 3.     Regulatory Environment, Private Sector Employment and Growth

 

The chapter — about 30 pages long (single spaced) would take approximately the following structure:

 

  • Overview — will introduce and highlight the key issues addressed in the chapter. IT will also provide the background and the rationale of the analysis, and clarify the methodology.

 

  • The Labour Market Characteristics and the Role of SMMEs. Utilizing labour force survey of 2007 and 2010, this section will analyze the labour market performance, (employment, unemployment, wages, migration trends, etc). It would also discuss in depth the labour market institutions such as wage setting, including the missing ones, especially active the labour market policies. Utilizing the 2010 SME survey and other studies, the section should highlight the state of the SME development, the role of SMMEs in the labour market and challenges encountered/measures that would support SMMEs. Special focus would be on productive youth and female entrepreneurship.

 

  • Regulatory Environment. The analysis would be based on the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) and the World Bank Doing Business methodology. The section will highlight Swaziland’s strengths and weaknesses of these relative to other economies in the region and elsewhere. It will also point to possible drivers of recovery of the economy, using the indicators in each of the 12 pillars of competitiveness. The section will thus provide policymakers, business leaders and other stakeholders and development partners with a useful diagnostic tool for the formulation of improved economic policies and institutional reforms.

 

  • Skill Mismatch and the Role of Higher Education. The key element of increased productivity and sectoral transformation will be a skilled labour force. While Swaziland has achieved high literacy level, the skills of the labour force in some areas (management, ICT, languages) often do not match the demands of highly productive private sector. This section will discuss the role of higher education for raising employability of labour force in Swaziland, especially its youth.

 

  • The section will evaluate the ‘skill gap’ in Swaziland and ways to close it. It will discuss the higher education system — its expansion, quality, and equity. Questions: (i) Does the system provide the country with adequate human capital? (ii) Is the system effective in generating applied research to raise productivity and innovation? (iii) Are universities well integrated into the innovations system, i.e. does the “government-private sector-universities” triangle work?

 

  • Lessons, Challenges and the Way Forward. This section will provide lessons learned and challenges Swaziland faces in achieving growth with job creation. It will suggest how weak business environment can be addressed. Attention will be paid to the impact of these measures on labour market outcomes such as changes in unemployment and working poverty and wages.

 

Data sources and methodology

The study will draw on official country data bases (including Labour Force Surveys 2007 and 2010) and discussions with stakeholders; sectoral reports, Urn’s data bases, relevant publications and studies; the Human Development Report; the African Economic Outlook; the Africa Competitiveness Report. Other key data sources: the World Bank’s Doing Business reports and Investment Climate Assessment reports.

 

The chapter will use the human development framework and the rights-based approach to the topic. The analysis needs to reflect the current status of human development in Swaziland in the areas of inclusive growth and employment and identify impediments for the speedy realization of the Millennium Development Goals, especially the MDG1. The approach will be case studies, utilizing the desk research.

 

Key References

 

Diedhiou, A. (2007), ‘Governance for Development: Understanding the Concept/Reality Linkages’, Journal of Human Development, Vol. 8 (1), 23 – 38.

 

The Government of Swaziland (2011), ‘Economic Recovery Strategy’.

 

The Government of Swaziland (2010), ‘Fiscal Adjustment Road Map’.

 

United Nations Development Program (2011), Regional Integration and Human Development: A Pathway for Africa, UNDP: New York.  

 

United Nations Development Program (2008), Swaziland Human Development Report: HIV and AIDS and Culture, UNDP: Swaziland.

 

United Nations Development Program (2000), Swaziland Human Development Report 2000: Economics Growth with Equity, UNDP: Swaziland.

 

United Nations Development Program and Southern Africa Development Community (1998), SADC Regional Human Development Report 1998 — Governance and Human Development in Africa, SAPES books Africa publisher.

 

World Economic Forum, African Development Bank and World Bank (2011), Africa Competitiveness Report 2011, WEF: Geneva, AfDB: Tunis and World Bank: Washington DC.

 

 

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[1] Swaziland Human Development Reports (HDRs) are part of the global effort to advance human development conceptual framework and apply it to the most pressing challenges of the day to find innovative and nationally-owned solutions. The first (1997) report was on ‘Sustainable Human Development’. The second (2000) report was on ‘Economic Growth with Equity’. The third (2008) report – on ‘HIV and Aids and Culture’ — received a special global recognition award during the 2009 Human Development Awards for Excellence.

 

[2] Ratio ofSwaziland’s exports toAfrica’s exports fell during 2001 – 09, from 0.76 percent to 0.36 percent. Growth ofSwaziland’s exports thus has not kept pace with that ofAfrica as a whole.

[3] Detailed structure for this and other chapters is provided in Annex II.

 

[4] Private investment to GDP ratio fell from around 25% in the early 1980s to below 10% in the recent years. Africa’s private investment/GDP ratio is at 15 %, which is about half ofAsia’s.Swaziland thus lags behind the average African country in terms of attractiveness for investment, and even further behind the Asian countries.

[5] Traders mitigate the supply chain unreliability through alternative and more expansive logistics, informal payments, and excessive inventories.